Regulation of testicular steroidogenesis

Recently, a specific peptide inhibitor for ATGL was isolated from white blood cells, specifically mononuclear cells. This peptide was originally identifed as being involved in the regulation of the G 0 to G 1 transition of the cell cycle . This peptide was, therefore, called G0G1 switch protein 2 (G0S2). The protein is found in numerous tissues, with highest concentrations in adipose tissue and liver. In adipose tissue G0S2 expression is very low during fasting but increases after feeding. Conversely, fasting or PPARα-agonists increase hepatic G0S2 expression. The protein has been shown to localize to LDs, cytoplasm, ER, and mitochondria. These different subcellular localizations likely relate to multiple functions for G0S2 in regulating lipolysis, the cell cycle , and, possibly, apoptosis via its ability to interact with the mitochondrial antiapoptotic factor Bcl-2. With respect to ATGL regulation, the binding of the enzyme to LDs and subsequent is dependent on a physical interaction between the N-terminal region of G0S2 and the patatin domain of ATGL.

2) Irreversible adaptation to sperm competition . It has been suggested that the ancestor of the boreoeutherian mammals was a small mammal that required very large testes (perhaps rather like those of a hamster ) for sperm competition and thus had to place its testes outside the body. [44] This led to enzymes involved in spermatogenesis, spermatogenic DNA polymerase beta and recombinase activities evolving a unique temperature optimum, slightly less than core body temperature. When the boreoeutherian mammals then diversified into forms that were larger and/or did not require intense sperm competition they still produced enzymes that operated best at cooler temperatures and had to keep their testes outside the body. This position is made less parsimonious by the fact that the kangaroo , a non-boreoeutherian mammal, has external testicles. The ancestors of kangaroos might, separately from boreotherian mammals, have also been subject to heavy sperm competition and thus developed external testes, however, kangaroo external testes are suggestive of a possible adaptive function for external testes in large animals.

Surgical – For many PSS cases surgery is the treatment of choice. The abnormal vessel that is shunting blood around the liver is identified and closed (ligated) to minimize blood flowing through it. When the abnormal blood vessel is ligated blood will now flow through the liver instead of around it. This is readily accomplished for solitary extrahepatic shunts. Intrahepatic shunts can be more difficult
to identify and ligate. Post surgical monitoring is important. If the pressure within the liver becomes too high due to the increased blood flow through the liver then the ligation on the shunting vessel(s) must be reduced or removed.

The surgeon begins with four small incisions, approximately half an inch long, in the upper right side of the abdomen. Two of these incisions allow the surgeon to place surgical instruments in the abdominal cavity. The third incision is used to insert the laparoscope , an instrument that has a light and a video camera that allows the surgeon to view the surgery on a monitor while working. The fourth incision is used to insert a port that releases carbon dioxide gas, inflating the abdomen to allow better visualization and more room to work.

Regulation of testicular steroidogenesis

regulation of testicular steroidogenesis

The surgeon begins with four small incisions, approximately half an inch long, in the upper right side of the abdomen. Two of these incisions allow the surgeon to place surgical instruments in the abdominal cavity. The third incision is used to insert the laparoscope , an instrument that has a light and a video camera that allows the surgeon to view the surgery on a monitor while working. The fourth incision is used to insert a port that releases carbon dioxide gas, inflating the abdomen to allow better visualization and more room to work.

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