The typical stress response begins within a very short period of time. The SNS response occurs more rapidly than the HPA axis response, due to direct neurotransmitter release on target tissues vs. indirect hormonal release into the circulation, respectively. Within seconds, the post-ganglionic neurons of the SNS release norepinephrine and the adrenal medulla releases epinephrine into circulation. Also within seconds, CRH is released from the PVN of the hypothalamus, followed quickly by the release of ACTH into peripheral circulation from the anterior pituitary . Within 3-5 minutes, the adrenal cortex releases CORT into the circulation, by which time peak plasma ACTH levels are reached. While peak levels of GCs vary according to stressor type and duration, circulating CORT levels typically reach peak levels15-30 minutes after stressor initiation . At this time ACTH levels have also returned to baseline . However, the effects of GCs on target tissues do not occur until about an hour after stressor initiation . After peak CORT levels are reached, negative feedback mechanisms shut down further CORT secretion so that circulating CORT levels recover to near baseline levels within 60-120 minutes after stressor initiation [15,14]. The time required to reach baseline levels also varies depending on stressor type and duration. Circulating levels of norepinephrine and epinephrine follow a similar trajectory, but with more rapid increases and decreases .
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