Ecdysteroids studies

The second main ingredient in Super Rhanderol is diosgenin, more commonly known as wild yam extract.  Diosgenin is a type of steroidal saponin. These compounds serve as a starting point for the semisynthesis of certain steroid hormones.  Studies specific to saponins and their effects on ecdysteroids show that the saponins enhance membrane permeation of cells to allow for an increase in the effectiveness of the ecdysteroids.  Diosgenin has been included in Super Rhanderol in order to enhance the effects of the Rhaponticum.

The second theory is similar and is known as "evolutionary neuroandrogenic (ENA) theory of male aggression". [79] [80] Testosterone and other androgens have evolved to masculinize a brain in order to be competitive even to the point of risking harm to the person and others. By doing so, individuals with masculinized brains as a result of pre-natal and adult life testosterone and androgens enhance their resource acquiring abilities in order to survive, attract and copulate with mates as much as possible. [79] The masculinization of the brain is not just mediated by testosterone levels at the adult stage, but also testosterone exposure in the womb as a fetus. Higher pre-natal testosterone indicated by a low digit ratio as well as adult testosterone levels increased risk of fouls or aggression among male players in a soccer game. [81] Studies have also found higher pre-natal testosterone or lower digit ratio to be correlated with higher aggression in males. [82] [83] [84] [85] [86]

Melanin (skin pigmentation) has also been reported to have its production reduced secondary to reduces production of the enzyme tyrosinase , which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in melanin synthesis. [44] This study noted that in B16F1 melanoma cells that incubation with up to 200ug/mL failed to exert cytotoxic effects and reduced melanin content at 25ug/mL (to 67% of control) and more-so at 50ug/mL and 100ug/mL reducing melanin down to 40% of control cells (with no significant difference between these two concentrations). [44] mRNA of tyrosinase was potently reduced to +/-% of control with 25ug/mL with higher doses being insignificantly better. [44]

Ecdysteroids studies

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