Atp coupling of catabolic and anabolic reactions

The dynamic nature of metabolism results in constant degrading and rebuilding of most cellular materials. For example, proteins exist in a cell for relatively brief times, ranging from minutes to weeks, with most proteins having average life spans of a few days. Structural proteins generally last longer than enzymes, but they too are eventually degraded and synthesized anew. Likewise, other cellular materials are turned over in a similar fashion. This constant turnover of cellular materials keeps the cell in good condition. Molecules that may have been damaged by, for example, being partially oxidized, will sooner or later be degraded and replaced.

One of the major triumphs of bioenergetics is Peter D. Mitchell 's chemiosmotic theory of how protons in aqueous solution function in the production of ATP in cell organelles such as mitochondria . [32] This work earned Mitchell the 1978 Nobel Prize for Chemistry . Other cellular sources of ATP such as glycolysis were understood first, but such processes for direct coupling of enzyme activity to ATP production are not the major source of useful chemical energy in most cells. Chemiosmotic coupling is the major energy producing process in most cells, being utilized in chloroplasts and several single celled organisms in addition to mitochondria.

The structure of cyclocreatine is fairly flat (planar), which aids in passive diffusion across membranes. It has been used with success in an animal study, where mice suffered from a SLC6A8 (creatine transporter at the blood brain barrier) deficiency, which is not responsive to standard creatine supplementation. [98] This study failed to report increases in creatine stores in the brain, but noted a reduction of mental retardation associated with increased cyclocreatine and phosphorylated cyclocreatine storages. [98] As demonstrated by this animal study and previous ones, cyclocreatine is bioactive after oral ingestion [98] [99] and may merely be a creatine mimetic, able to phosphorylate ADP via the creatine kinase system. [98]

Elegant studies from Wang and colleagues demonstrate that insulin induces activation of GABA(A) receptors in the alpha cells by GABA receptor translocation via an Akt kinase-dependent pathway. This leads to membrane hyperpolarization in the alpha cells and, ultimately, suppression of glucagon secretion. Hence, insulin may directly inhibit glucagon secretion, and indirectly potentiate the inhibitory effects of GABA concomitant released by β -cells-See Intra-islet insulin suppresses glucagon release via GABA-GABA(A) receptor system. Cell Metab. 2006 Jan;3(1):47-58

A number of systems for pumping ions across membranes are powered by ATP. Such ATP-powered pumps are often called ATPases, although they do not often hydrolyze ATP unless they are simultaneously transporting ions. Because small increases in calcium ions in the cytosol can trigger a number of different intracellular reactions, cells keep the cytosolic calcium concentration quite low under normal conditions, using ATP-powered calcium pumps. For example, muscle cells transport calcium from the cytosol into the membranous system called the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). If a resting muscle cell's cytosol has a free calcium ion concentration of 10-7 while the concentration in the SR is 10-2, then how is the ATPase acting?

Atp coupling of catabolic and anabolic reactions

atp coupling of catabolic and anabolic reactions

Elegant studies from Wang and colleagues demonstrate that insulin induces activation of GABA(A) receptors in the alpha cells by GABA receptor translocation via an Akt kinase-dependent pathway. This leads to membrane hyperpolarization in the alpha cells and, ultimately, suppression of glucagon secretion. Hence, insulin may directly inhibit glucagon secretion, and indirectly potentiate the inhibitory effects of GABA concomitant released by β -cells-See Intra-islet insulin suppresses glucagon release via GABA-GABA(A) receptor system. Cell Metab. 2006 Jan;3(1):47-58

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