I was reading in the university health news daily website that a study performed by researchers at the University of Texas . Anderson Cancer Center found that men with prostate cancer who ate 3 tablespoons of milled or ground flax seeds each day had decreased prostate cancer cell proliferation compared to similar men who did not eat flax seeds. According to the American Cancer Society, men who supplement their diets with flax seed have lower PSA levels and slower growth of benign as well as cancerous prostate cells.
Perhaps the effect of phytoestrogenic in humans it’s not fully understood as yet.
10. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate – Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is a coenzyme found in all living cells. The compound is a dinucleotide, because it consists of two nucleotides joined through their phosphate groups, one nucleotide contains an adenine base and the other nicotinamide. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide exists in two forms, an oxidized and reduced form abbreviated as NAD+ and NADH respectively, in metabolism, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is involved in redox reactions, carrying electrons from one reaction to another. The coenzyme is, therefore, found in two forms in cells, NAD+ is an oxidizing agent – it accepts electrons from other molecules and becomes reduced and this reaction forms NADH, which can then be used as a reducing agent to donate electrons. These electron transfer reactions are the function of NAD. However, it is used in other cellular processes, the most notable one being a substrate of enzymes that add or remove chemical groups from proteins. Because of the importance of these functions, the involved in NAD metabolism are targets for drug discovery. In organisms, NAD can be synthesized from simple building-blocks from the amino acids tryptophan or aspartic acid, in an alternative fashion, more complex components of the coenzymes are taken up from food as the vitamin called niacin. Similar compounds are released by reactions that break down the structure of NAD and these preformed components then pass through a salvage pathway that recycles them back into the active form. Some NAD is also converted into nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, the chemistry of this related coenzyme is similar to that of NAD, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, like all dinucleotides, consists of two nucleosides joined by a pair of bridging phosphate groups. The nucleosides each contain a ring, one with adenine attached to the first carbon atom. The nicotinamide moiety can be attached in two orientations to this carbon atom. Because of these two structures, the compound exists as two diastereomers. It is the diastereomer of NAD+ that is found in organisms. These nucleotides are joined together by a bridge of two groups through the 5 carbons. In metabolism, the compound accepts or donates electrons in redox reactions, such reactions involve the removal of two hydrogen atoms from the reactant, in the form of a hydride ion, and a proton. The proton is released into solution, while the reductant RH2 is oxidized, the midpoint potential of the NAD+/NADH redox pair is − volts, which makes NADH a strong reducing agent. The reaction is reversible, when NADH reduces another molecule and is re-oxidized to NAD+